## Dodecahedron

The regular dodecahedron is the Platonic Solid () composed of 20 Vertices, 30 Edges, and 12 Pentagonal Faces. It is given by the symbol , the Schläfli Symbol . It is also Uniform Polyhedron and has Wythoff Symbol . The dodecahedron has the Icosahedral Group of symmetries.

A Plane Perpendicular to a axis of a dodecahedron cuts the solid in a regular Hexagonal Cross-Section (Holden 1991, p. 27). A Plane Perpendicular to a axis of a dodecahedron cuts the solid in a regular Decagonal Cross-Section (Holden 1991, p. 24).

The Dual Polyhedron of the dodecahedron is the Icosahedron.

When the dodecahedron with edge length is oriented with two opposite faces parallel to the -Plane, the vertices of the top and bottom faces lie at and the other Vertices lie at , where is the Golden Ratio. The explicit coordinates are

 (1)

 (2)

with , 1, ..., 4, where is the Golden Ratio. Explicitly, these coordinates are
 (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

where are the top vertices, are the vertices above the mid-plane, are the vertices below the mid-plane, and are the bottom vertices. The Vertices of a dodecahedron can be given in a simple form for a dodecahedron of side length by (0, , ), (, 0, ), (, , 0), and (, , ).

For a dodecahedron of unit edge length , the Circumradius and Inradius of a Pentagonal Face are

 (13) (14)

The Sagitta is then given by
 (15)

Now consider the following figure.

Using the Pythagorean Theorem on the figure then gives

 (16) (17) (18)

Equation (3) can be written
 (19)

Solving (1), (2), and (19) simultaneously gives
 (20) (21) (22)

The Inradius of the dodecahedron is then given by
 (23)

so
 (24)

and
 (25)

Now,
 (26)

 (27)

 (28)

so
 (29)

The Area of a single Face is the Area of a Pentagon,

 (30)

The Volume of the dodecahedron can be computed by summing the volume of the 12 constituent Pentagonal Pyramids,
 (31)

Apollonius showed that the Volume and Surface Area of the dodecahedron and its Dual the Icosahedron are related by
 (32)

The Hexagonal Scalenohedron is an irregular dodecahedron.

See also Augmented Dodecahedron, Augmented Truncated Dodecahedron, Dodecagon, Dodecahedron-Icosahedron Compound, Elongated Dodecahedron, Great Dodecahedron, Great Stellated Dodecahedron, Hyperbolic Dodecahedron, Icosahedron, Metabiaugmented Dodecahedron, Metabiaugmented Truncated Dodecahedron, Parabiaugmented Dodecahedron, Parabiaugmented Truncated Dodecahedron, Pyritohedron, Rhombic Dodecahedron, Small Stellated Dodecahedron, Triaugmented Dodecahedron, Triaugmented Truncated Dodecahedron, Trigonal Dodecahedron, Trigonometry Values Pi/5, Truncated Dodecahedron

References

Cundy, H. and Rollett, A. Mathematical Models, 3rd ed. Stradbroke, England: Tarquin Pub., 1989.

Davie, T. The Dodecahedron.'' http://www.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~ad/mathrecs/polyhedra/dodecahedron.html.

Holden, A. Shapes, Space, and Symmetry. New York: Dover, 1991.