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Binary Tree

A Tree with two Branches at each Fork and with one or two Leaves at the end of each Branch. (This definition corresponds to what is sometimes known as an ``extended'' binary tree.) The height of a binary tree is the number of levels within the Tree. For a binary tree of height $H$ with $n$ nodes,

H\leq n\leq 2^H-1.

These extremes correspond to a balanced tree (each node except the Leaves has a left and right Child, and all Leaves are at the same level) and a degenerate tree (each node has only one outgoing Branch), respectively. For a search of data organized into a binary tree, the number of search steps $S(n)$ needed to find an item is bounded by

\lg n\leq S(n)\leq n.

Partial balancing of an arbitrary tree into a so-called AVL binary search tree can improve search speed.

The number of binary trees with $n$ internal nodes is the Catalan Number $C_n$ (Sloane's A000108), and the number of binary trees of height $b$ is given by Sloane's A001699.

See also B-Tree, Quadtree, Quaternary Tree, Red-Black Tree, Stern-Brocot Tree, Weakly Binary Tree


Lucas, J.; Roelants van Baronaigien, D.; and Ruskey, F. ``Generating Binary Trees by Rotations.'' J. Algorithms 15, 343-366, 1993.

Ranum, D. L. ``On Some Applications of Fibonacci Numbers.'' Amer. Math. Monthly 102, 640-645, 1995.

Ruskey, F. ``Information on Binary Trees.''

Ruskey, F. and Proskurowski, A. ``Generating Binary Trees by Transpositions.'' J. Algorithms 11, 68-84, 1990.

Sloane, N. J. A. Sequences A000108/M1459 and A001699/M3087 in ``An On-Line Version of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.'' and Sloane, N. J. A. and Plouffe, S. The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995.

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