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The branch of mathematics dealing with Integers or, more generally, numerical computation. Arithmetical operations include Addition, Congruence calculation, Division, Factorization, Multiplication, Power computation, Root extraction, and Subtraction.

The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, also called the Unique Factorization Theorem, states that any Positive Integer can be represented in exactly one way as a Product of Primes.

The Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem, which is a fundamental result in Model Theory, establishes the existence of ``nonstandard'' models of arithmetic.

See also Algebra, Calculus, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Group Theory, Higher Arithmetic, Linear Algebra, Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem, Model Theory, Number Theory, Trigonometry



Karpinski, L. C. The History of Arithmetic. Chicago, IL: Rand, McNally, & Co., 1925.

Maxfield, J. E. and Maxfield, M. W. Abstract Algebra and Solution by Radicals. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1992.

Thompson, J. E. Arithmetic for the Practical Man. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973.

© 1996-9 Eric W. Weisstein