## Permanent

An analog of a Determinant where all the signs in the expansion by Minors are taken as Positive. The permanent of a Matrix A is the coefficient of in

(Vardi 1991). Another equation is the Ryser Formula

where the Sum is over all Subsets of , and is the number of elements in (Vardi 1991).

If is a Unitary Matrix, then

(Minc 1978, p. 25; Vardi 1991).

References

Borovskikh, Y. V. and Korolyuk, V. S. Random Permanents. Philadelphia, PA: Coronet Books, 1994.

Vardi, I. Permanents.'' §6.1 in Computational Recreations in Mathematica. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 108 and 110-112, 1991.