## Sarkovskii's Theorem

Order the Natural Numbers as follows:   Now let be a Continuous Function from the Reals to the Reals and suppose in the above ordering. Then if has a point of Least Period , then also has a point of Least Period .

A special case of this general result, also known as Sarkovskii's theorem, states that if a Continuous Real function has a Periodic Point with period 3, then there is a Periodic Point of period for every Integer .

A converse to Sarkovskii's theorem says that if in the above ordering, then we can find a Continuous Function which has a point of Least Period , but does not have any points of Least Period (Elaydi 1996). For example, there is a Continuous Function with no points of Least Period 3 but having points of all other Least Periods.

References

Conway, J. H. and Guy, R. K. Periodic Points.'' In The Book of Numbers. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 207-208, 1996.

Devaney, R. L. An Introduction to Chaotic Dynamical Systems, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Elaydi, S. On a Converse of Sharkovsky's Theorem.'' Amer. Math. Monthly 103, 386-392, 1996.

Ott, E. Chaos in Dynamical Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 49, 1993.

Sharkovsky, A. N. Co-Existence of Cycles of a Continuous Mapping of a Line onto Itself.'' Ukranian Math. Z. 16, 61-71, 1964.

Stefan, P. A Theorem of Sharkovsky on the Existence of Periodic Orbits of Continuous Endomorphisms of the Real Line.'' Comm. Math. Phys. 54, 237-248, 1977.