The middle value of a distribution or average of the two middle items, denoted or . The Mean is approximately less than the median. The median is less efficient than the Mean for small sample sizes, but is less sensitive to outliers than the Mean (Kenney and Keeping 1962, p. 211).

For large samples with population median ,

The median is an

**References**

Kenney, J. F. and Keeping, E. S. *Mathematics of Statistics, Pt. 1, 3rd ed.* Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1962.

Press, W. H.; Flannery, B. P.; Teukolsky, S. A.; and Vetterling, W. T.
*Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed.* Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press, p. 694, 1992.

© 1996-9

1999-05-26