Perspective is the art and mathematics of realistically depicting 3-D objects in a 2-D plane. The study of the projection of objects in a plane is called Projective Geometry. The principles of perspective drawing were elucidated by the Florentine architect F. Brunelleschi (1377-1446). These rules are summarized by Dixon (1991):

- 1. The horizon appears as a line.
- 2. Straight lines in space appear as straight lines in the image.
- 3. Sets of Parallel lines meet at a Vanishing Point.
- 4. Lines Parallel to the picture plane appear Parallel and therefore have no Vanishing Point.

**References**

de Vries, V. *Perspective.* New York: Dover, 1968.

Dixon, R. ``Perspective Drawings.'' Ch. 3 in *Mathographics.* New York: Dover, pp. 79-88, 1991.

Parramon, J. M. *Perspective--How to Draw.* Barcelona, Spain: Parramon Editions, 1984.

© 1996-9

1999-05-26