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Hempel's Paradox

A purple cow is a confirming instance of the hypothesis that all crows are black.


Carnap, R. Logical Foundations of Probability. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 224 and 469, 1950.

Gardner, M. The Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles & Diversions. New York: Simon and Schuster, pp. 52-54, 1959.

Goodman, N. Ch. 3 in Fact, Fiction, and Forecast. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955.

Hempel, C. G. ``A Purely Syntactical Definition of Confirmation.'' J. Symb. Logic 8, 122-143, 1943.

Hempel, C. G. ``Studies in Logic and Confirmation.'' Mind 54, 1-26, 1945.

Hempel, C. G. ``Studies in Logic and Confirmation. II.'' Mind 54, 97-121, 1945.

Hempel, C. G. ``A Note on the Paradoxes of Confirmation.'' Mind 55, 1946.

Hosiasson-Lindenbaum, J. ``On Confirmation.'' J. Symb. Logic 5, 133-148, 1940.

Whiteley, C. H. ``Hempel's Paradoxes of Confirmation.'' Mind 55, 156-158, 1945.

© 1996-9 Eric W. Weisstein