## Graceful Graph

A Labeled Graph which can be gracefully numbered'' is called a graceful graph. Label the nodes with distinct Nonnegative Integers. Then label the Edges with the absolute differences between node values. If the Edge numbers then run from 1 to , the graph is gracefully numbered. In order for a graph to be graceful, it must be without loops or multiple Edges.

Golomb showed that the number of Edges connecting the Even-numbered and Odd-numbered sets of nodes is , where is the number of Edges. In addition, if the nodes of a graph are all of Even Order, then the graph is graceful only if is Even. The only ungraceful simple graphs with nodes are shown below.

There are exactly graceful graphs with Edges (Sheppard 1976), where of these correspond to different labelings of the same graph. Golomb (1974) showed that all complete bipartite graphs are graceful. Caterpillar Graphs; Complete Graphs , , (and only these; Golomb 1974); Cyclic Graphs when , when the number of consecutive chords , 3, or (Koh and Punnim 1982), or when they contain a chord (Delorme et al. 1980, Koh and Yap 1985, Punnim and Pabhapote 1987); Gear Graphs; Path Graphs; the Petersen Graph; Polyhedral Graphs , , , , and (Gardner 1983); Star Graphs; the Thomsen Graph (Gardner 1983); and Wheel Graphs (Frucht 1988) are all graceful.

Some graceful graphs have only one numbering, but others have more than one. It is conjectured that all trees are graceful (Bondy and Murty 1976), but this has only been proved for trees with Vertices. It has also been conjectured that all unicyclic graphs are graceful.

References

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